Gurukulas were not the only educational institutions in ancient India. Vocational education in professions such as carpentry, jewelry, metal works, stone carving, cattle breeding, agriculture and sculpture was often taught to children by their own family members or the heads of the family. Some times the local guilds, which served as professional associations and financial institutions for the guild members, acted as training institutions or arranged for the training of their members. Sometimes, children worked as apprentices under their more senior family members, in their workshops, and perfected their skills. Knowledge was also imparted by wandering teachers, known as Charakas, who traveled from place to place and spread knowledge among people. We do not know how they taught. Probably they held training camps or public discourses, where people could perfect their knowledge by seeking clarifications or learning new things or improving their existing skills. In addition, kings like Janaka often held religious conferences, to which they invited many scholars from various parts of the subcontinent. People who participated in them had a great opportunity to interact with other and learn from them. Those who completed their education in a gurukula, also worked as apprentices for sometime under experienced professionals, before they went on their own.
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At the same time, they elected a city council , chaired by the Protestant Daniel Renaud , and the mayor Nicolas-Thérese Vallet of Salignac . On July 12, 1790, the National Assembly voted for the civil constitution of the clergy, in the canton of Royan. The priests of the parishes of Royan, Vaux and Saint-Sulpice refused to take the constitutional oath and become prêtres réfractaires , condemned to deportation .
Pakistan is one of those unfortunate countries where hundreds of thousands of children under the age of five years die each year. Only the lucky ones of our children reach the fifth grade; and almost half of the children are underweight. More than ten million children work in Pakistan in the age group 10-18 years alone.
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Today African Liberation Day is a permanent mass institution in the world-wide Pan-African movement. As an institution, it is stronger today because the masses of African people are stronger and ALD is their day. As a day of work in the area of political education and organization, it reflects the fact that we have not obtained our freedom, and thus it is a day to reaffirm our commitment to Pan-Africanism, the total liberation and unification of Africa under scientific socialism. At ALD we also deepen our understanding of other just struggles and affirm our role in the world socialist revolution. ALD has but one direction, forward to a unified socialist Africa. It is growing as the level of awareness about Pan-Africanism and the primacy of Africa grows. It is growing as progressive and revolutionary organizations grow. And lastly, it is growing as the masses make increasing victories against capitalism, neo-colonialism, racism, and zionism.